Zimbabwe nedzimwe nyika dzemuAfrica dzinoda rubatsiro kuti dzikwanise kuderedza mutsindo weClimate change

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Perseverance Javangwe

Nyika dzisina kubudirira muAfrica kusanganisira Zimbabwe, dzirikushungurudzika kwazvo kuti dzikwanise kuderedza magas anouraya ozone layer zvichitevera kushaya rubatsiro kubva kunyika dzakabudirira, izvo zvinozokonzera kuti kuve nenjodzi dzakaipisisa dzinokonzerwa neclimate change.

Mugore ra2015 nyika zhinji dzakasangana dzichikurukura maringe neclimate change pakaitwa inonzi Paris Agreement. Apa nyika dzakatenderana kuti dzichaderedza magas anouraya ozone layer neuwandu huri pasi pe2 degrees celcious. Uye pakaitwawo hurongwa hwekuti nyika dziite padiki padiki kubatsirana nenyika dzisina kubudirira, mari yacho inosvika USD$10 million mwaka wega wega.

Asi kunyangwe zvazvo nyika dzemu Africa dzakapika kuti dzichange dzichiita zvadzinogona kuderedza huwandu hwemagas anouraya ozone layer, cherechedzo yakaitwa nemupepeti weGango inoratidza kuti nyika zhinji dziri kutambudzika kuti dziwane mari yekuti dzikwanise kukunda padambudziko reclimate change nekudaro panodawo rubatsiro rweClimate Finance kuti zvifambe zvakanaka.

Dr. Byron Zamasiya veku Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association (ZELA) vachitaura pachirongwa cheZIDAWU Monitors Forum vakati ivo nyika dzisina kubudirira dzirikunyanya kukuvara neclimate change kunyangwe dzisiri idzo dzinokonzera gas rakawanda muozone layer. Wongororo yakaitwawo nana mazvikokota veScience inoratidza kuti nyika dzakabudirira ndidzo dziri kukonzera maemissions akawanda asi nyika dzisina kubudirira ndidzo dziri kunyanya kukuvara. Dr. Zamasiya vakarondedzerawo mafambisirwo anoitwa mari yemu Paris Agreement.

“Nyika dzakabudirira ndidzo dzakabudirira kuburikidza neindustrilisation, asi panoita industrialisation chiutsi chakwanda chinokanganisa ozone layer chaibudawo chichikanganisa mamiriro ekunze. Nyika dzisina kubudirira hadzina kupindawo nemugwara iri reindustrialisation kureva kuti hadzina mhosho panyaya yechiutsi ichi.

“Kuburikidza neParis Agreement taririso ndeyekuti nyika dzisina kubudirira dzaizowana mukana wekuwana mari kubva muhombodo iyi kuti dziwane kurarama kana dzawirwa nedambudziko rinounzwa neclimate change.  Matambudziko aya akafanana nemacyclone, mafashamu (floods), nzara (drought) uye kupisa kusina tsarukano (heat waves), uye mastorms.

“Dambudziko riripo ndere kuti, kuti nyika dzisina kubudirira dziwane mari iyi dzinofanira kuita inonzi mitigation (kuderedza kunobva magas anouraya ozone layer). Asi nyaya inodiwa kunyika dzisina kubudirira inyaya yeadaptation (nzira dzokuderedza mutsindo weclimate change zvakafanana nekushandisa mbeu dzemwaka mupfupi, kurima mbeu dzakasiyana siyana, nezvimwe). Saka mari zhinji iripo ndeyemitigation kwete adaptation.

“Mukazvitarisa munoona kuti nyika dzisina kubudirira dzinoita produce only 7% yemagas anouraya ozone layer. Zvinoreva kuti mitigation haisi nyaya yakakosha kunyika idzi. Zvakare nyika dzisina kubudirira hadzina kwaniso yekuzvibatsira kana dzichinge dzawirwa nenjodzi inokonzerwa neclimate change. Muenzaniso ndewekuti patakawirwa necyclone Idai zvakatora batsiro yedzimwe nyika dzakabudirira kuti tikwanise kubatsira mhuri dzanga dzapazirwa misha nemafashamu. Saka pakadayi vavariro inenge iri yokuti nyika dzisina kubudirira dziwane mari yeadaptation kwete mitigation,” vakadaro Dr. Zamasiya.

Zvichakadaro, chimwe chinonyanya kushungurudza nyika dzisina kubudirira ndechekuti nyika dzakabudirira dzirikuti idzo mari inofanirwa kutorwa nechikwereti. Izvi zvinobva zvawomera nyika dzisina kubudirira nekuti dzagara dziine zvimwe zvikwereti nechekare izvo zvinozoita kuti paite bongozozo pakuzobhadhara. Nokudaro zvinobva zvawomera nyika dzisina kubudirira nekuti hadzichakwanisi kuwana mari yeclimate finance.

“Chimwe chiripo ndechekuti nyika dzakabudirira dzinoshuva kwazvo kuti nyika dzisina kubudirira dziwane mari iyi sezvikwereti kwete magrant (mari isingadzorerwi). Asi makazvitarisa munoonawo moga kuti nyika zhinji dzisina kubudirira hadzina kwaniso yekuwana mari iyi sechikwereti nekuti dziri kutoremerwawo nezvimwe zvikwereti. Zvekare vane mari dzavowo (private equity) vanotarisira kuita profit kubva pamari dzeclimate. Saka mukatarisa mari iya yemuParis Agreement ine chikamu chikuru chinoda kukweretwa chiine interest kana kuti vukuri.

“Mukatarisa nyaya dzose idzi zvinoreva kuti panyaya yeclimate finance, nyika dzisina kubudirira hadzina chouviri kana kuti mhindu dzokuti dziwane mari iyi. Zvinoreva izvo kuti pakupera kwazvo nyika dzisina kubudirira hadzina kuwana mukana wekushandisa mari iyi kana kuti kukwanisa kuitora,” vakadaro Dr. Zamasiya.

Nekuda kwedambudziko iri, ndizvo zvakaunza nyaya yema Nationally Determined Contirbutions (NDC). Nekupfurikidza kwema NDC nyika dzisina kubudirira dzakasungirwa kuti dziratidze nzira dzekuderedza greenhouse gas nechimbi chimbi.

“Nyika dzisina kubudirira dzakakomekedzwa kunyora nzira dzekuti dzoderedza sei magas aya anokonzera kuparara kweozone layer, gwaro iri rinonzi Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC). Mugwaro rekutanga Zimbabwe yakati ichaderedza magreenhouse gas kuburikidza nenzira dzakasiyasiyana dzakaita sekudzvara miti, renewable energy, nezvimwewo. Saka yakati ichaderedza magas aya ne33%. Gore rakapera nyika yedu yakaita imwe ongororo ndobva vaisa pa40%. Tarisiro ndeyekuti kana taita maNDC aya tinobva tawanawo mukana wokuwana mari yeclimate mitigation.

“Pamusoro peNDC, nyika inotarisirwa kuva nemaaccredited institutions. Mainstitutions aya anosanganisira Environment Management Agency (EMA), neInfrastructure Development Bank. Ava vanofanira kuzadzisa zvinodiwa nenyika dzakabata mari. Semuenzaniso Zimbabwe yakawana USD$2.5 million kubva kuGreen Climate Fund yakanangana nemitigation.

“Mushure mekuona kuti mari yeclimate finance inonetsa kuwana kubva kuParis Agreement, nyika zhinji dzava kuita mano okutsvaga mari kuvagari vadzo. Pane nzira dzakasiyana siyana dzakafanana necarbon tax inoiswa pafuel. Saka ukatenga fuel yakawanda unobhadharawo carbon tax yakawanda. Kune anonzi madiaspora climate bonds. Apa vanhu vari kunze kwenyika yedu yeZimbabwe asi vari maZimbabwean vanokweretesa hurumende mari kuburikidza nemabond. Saka panoita mature bond riya hurumende inobva yadzorera mari kumunhu akaikweretesa iine kainterest. Mari iyi inogona kushandiswa kuvaka madhamhu, solar plants nezvimwe zvakadaro. Yakanakira kuti haina zvirango zvakafanana neiya yemudengu mudengu yeParis Agreement. KuEthiopia vakatomboashandisa vakavaka dhamhu

“Nyika inogonawo kuisa parutivi mari mubudget rayo yakanangana neadaptation kana mitigation. Mukatarisa mubudget ra2022, hurumende yakagadzira Climate Finance Department ikaisa about 3.7 billion for climate change. Kunyangwe chiri chinhu chakanaka kuti nyika iise mari iyi parutivi, nyika dzisina kubudirira dzine matambudziko mazhinji zvekuti mari iyi ingori donhwe. Nyaya iri paclimate finance. Vakabudirira vane mari uye zivo yokuti vabude pamatambudziko. Isu vokunyika dzisina kubudirira hatina mari vuye zivo. Ndosaka muchiona kuti panoita njodzi yeclimate change, kunyika dzisina kubudirira kunonyanyochemwa nokufiwa kupfuura kwakabudirira. Siyano iri padziriro, zivo nemari,” vakadaro Dr. Zamasiya.

Kuti nyika dzisina kubudirira dzikwanisa kurwisa dambudziko reclimate change panodawo rubatsiro kubva kumasangano makuru kupfurikidza neclimate finance.


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